Nuclear fission chambers are cooled by water, both in the boiling water reactors BWRs and pressurized water reactors PWRs. In PWRs, cold water enters through primary pipes additionally the secondary pipes remove the warm water away, so that the coolant is not in touch with the reactor. The water can get contaminated and is transported to the rest of system in BWRs, water runs through the reactor core, so if there is any leakage of fuel.
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Used nuclear rods are immersed in water in the spent fuel pool, to cool them before they could be transported for disposal. Radio-active water can leak out of doors in the pool once the seals that keep the doors airtight malfunction. Other pollutants released by nuclear plants are heavy metals and toxic pollutants that harm plant and animal life in aquatic bodies. Water is released into the atmosphere after being cooled but is still warm and damages the ecosystem for the sinks it flows into.
As soon as the uranium has finished splitting, the resulting radioactive byproducts need to be removed. While recycling efforts of this waste product have been undertaken in the last few years, the storage associated with the by-product could lead to contamination through leaks or containment failures. Nuclear reactors are designed with several safety systems built to support the radiation given off in the fission process. When these safety systems are properly maintained and installed, they function adequately.
When they are not maintained, have structural flaws or were improperly installed, a nuclear reactor could release harmful amounts of radiation to the environment throughout the procedure of regular use. If a containment field were to rupture suddenly, the resulting leak of radiation could be catastrophic. Nuclear energy sources have higher density than fossil fuels and release massive amounts of energy.
Due to this, nuclear power plants require low quantities of fuel but produce enormous amounts of power. The energy produced by a nuclear fission process is one million-times more than that of a thermal power plant.
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One of the major negatives of nuclear energy is the impact of uranium on the environment. While transportation of nuclear fuel to a power plant can cause pollution, the process involved in mining and refining uranium is also a concern.
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The vast amount of nuclear waste created by power plants can lead to high radiation and raise temperature levels. Transporting refined uranium for use in nuclear power plants will also need huge spending. As large amounts of waste are created during the refinement of uranium, any mishandling of the processes can affect the environment and pose health risks to human beings.
The construction of nuclear power plants usually take several years to complete as they require large infrastructure. The difficulties in producing power from a nuclear plant in a short period of time makes them less favourable compared to building electricity plants that run on traditional sources.
Also, massive investments are required to build a nuclear power plant, as costs involved in installing radiation containment systems are high. Remember me. Don't have an account?
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However, the financial costs of building and decommissioning a nuclear power station are very large, and the waste produced will remain radioactive - hazardous to humans and the environment - for thousands of years. Fission reactors A fission reactor contains a number of different parts: Nuclear fuel - the uranium or plutonium isotope that will split when triggered by an incoming neutron. The fuel is held in rods so that the neutrons released will fly out and cause nuclear fission in other rods.
Moderator - graphite core - a graphite core, for example, slows the neutrons down so that they are more likely to be absorbed into a nearby fuel rod. Control rods - these are raised and lowered to stop neutrons from travelling between fuel rods and therefore change the speed of the chain reaction. Coolant - this is heated up by the energy released from the fission reactions and is used to boil water to drive turbines in the power station.
Concrete shield - the daughter products of the fission reaction are radioactive and can be a hazard. Advantages and disadvantages of nuclear power stations Generating electricity using nuclear reactors carries high risk but offers large rewards.